|Brief 43 and 45: The Security Sector reform after the Arab Spring|
|Written by Fred Tanner, Mohammad-Mahmoud Ould Mohamedou, Salam Kawakibi|
'The imperative of Security Sector reform after the Arab Spring' written by Fred Tanner and Mohammad-Mahmoud Ould Mohamedou
As North African and Middle Eastern countries move from revolution to democracy, the reform of the security sector needs to be tackled. According to Fred Tanner and Mohammad-Mahmoud Ould Mohamedou, the post-Arab Spring security sector reform faces three main challenges: to redefine the mission of security forces, to communicate the reform process to the general public and to secure the support and assistance from external partners (in particular the US and Europe).
The transformation of the security instruments under the “serve and protect” principle is key to speeding up transitions to democracy.
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'La "Sécuritocratie" dans la tourmente des révolutions arabes' written by Salam Kawakibi
The concept of “securitocracy” is used by Salam Kawakibi to describe Southern Mediterranean regimes such the ones in Egypt, Tunisia or Libya before the Arab Spring. These regimes were based on the repression against any kind of opposition and the society, along with security forces, became victims of a regime governed by a culture of fear.
Following the democratic uprisings of these countries, political systems are to be redefined in order to ensure self-protection. According to Salam Kawakibi, the reform of the security sector is a crucial step towards the establishment of a democratic regime. The process starts with the removal of the culture of fear associated to the security apparatuses and ends with the progressive democratic control of the whole security sector.
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